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Encyclopedia of Forensic Science. If Sherlock Holmes had cracked the O. Simpson case, he would have done it AR , 20 In June tremors and a violent earthquake occurred at Gizo over two days, and in July Vanikolo experienced an earthquake, its epicentre thought to have been to the southwest, and a withdrawal of the ocean but no tsunami. AR , 20 Lake Lees on Guadalcanal was formed at this time.
In March a severe earthquake hit the district around Gizo and in December Tulagi experienced severe tremors, and landslides occurred on Savo q. Local villages and plantation wharves were swept away and coconut plantations inundated by salt water. The tsunami was between six and nine meters high when it crossed the northwest coast of Guadalcanal. A similar event occurred in the Western Solomons in when an earthquake centred off Rendova generated a tsunami that devastated the surrounding area, killing many and destroying much property.
Guadalcanal experienced its most severe earthquake in living memory on 21 April , measuring 9 to 10 on the Richter Magnitude Scale at Mercalli, 8 at Tetere and 7. The epicentre was thought to have been a few kilometres offshore from Avuavu in the south. Honiara was shaken and buildings collapsed, roads split and shelving was dislodged.
In the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank glass shattered and walls cracked. There was great devastation in the island's centre and the reef off Lauvi Lagoon rose some two metres out of the ocean. New hot springs formed and sulphur fumes rose from the ground at Hai Marao, just outside Avuavu. The whole of Guadalcanal, particularly along the south coast, was raised and titled slightly.
A tsunami that followed struck the coast from Avuavu westward, and landslides and seas of mud destroyed some villages. Food relief had to be delivered to the area for months until people could grow new crops. SND 22 Apr.
AR , Tinakula is about two kilometres in diameter and rises abruptly from the sea. Tinakula is the exposed summit of a massive stratovolcano that rises three to four kilometres from the sea floor and is continually smoking. The satellitic cone is located on the southeast side. In about an explosive eruption produced lava flows that swept all sides of the island and killed its inhabitants.
In , Polynesians from Nukapu and Nupani resettled the island, the population peaking at Volcanic activity decreased after an earthquake in February and the people survived a January eruption, which produced a large lava flow down the north side into the sea. NS 7 Feb. Some of them chose to return to Nupani and others stayed on Santa Cruz. AR , 5; NS 15 Sept. The volcano emits small eruptions approximately every hour in a plume of ash and rocks.
Most large eruptions have originated from a core built up within the large breached crater.
Other volcanoes are in a sulpheritic stage. Savo is a forested andesitic-to-dacitic stratavolcano with a shallow, elliptical summit crater. Lava domes occur on the crater floor and its northeast rim, and there are older domes on the volcano's flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have travelled down valleys from the summit crater and formed debris fans along the coast.
Thermal areas can be found in the summit crater and on the south to southeast flanks, and appear in offshore areas as steaming ground, hot springs and small geysers.
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The boulder and sand beaches and even the surf exhibit higher than atmospheric heat. They do know where earthquakes may occur, such as close to the fault lines. Earthquakes sometimes hit cities and kill hundreds or thousands of people. Most earthquakes happen along the Pacific Ring of Fire but the biggest ones mostly happen in other places. Tectonically active places are places where earthquakes or volcanic eruptions are frequent. Earthquakes are caused by tectonic movements in the Earth's crust.
The main cause is when tectonic plates ride one over the other, causing orogeny mountain building , and severe earthquakes. The boundaries between moving plates form the largest fault surfaces on Earth. When they stick, motion between the plates leads to increasing stress. This continues until the stress rises and breaks, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault.
This releases the stored energy as shock wave s. However, these are confined to areas of active volcanoes.
These are called collapse earthquakes. There are three main types of geological fault that may cause an earthquake: normal, reverse thrust and strike-slip. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended. Reverse faults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other. Most earthquakes form part of a sequence, related to each other in terms of location and time. A foreshock is an earthquake that occurs before a larger earthquake, called the mainshock.
An aftershock is an earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake, the mainshock. An aftershock is in the same region of the main shock but always of a smaller magnitude. Aftershocks are formed as the crust adjusts to the effects of the main shock. Earthquake swarms are sequences of earthquakes striking in a specific area within a short period of time. They are different from earthquakes followed by a series of aftershocks by the fact that no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the main shock, therefore none have notably higher magnitudes than the other.
An example of an earthquake swarm is the activity at Yellowstone National Park.