Using professional coffee tasting as an illustration here, taste descriptors do not merely describe but also direct the tasting of a cup of coffee; hence, a descriptor is not merely the causal result of what is tasted, as in:. The descriptors operate reflexively by finding in the coffee what they mean, and each is used to make the other more explicit.
Much the same may be said about rules-in-games or the use of accounts in ordinary action. Garfinkel has frequently illustrated ethnomethodological analysis by means of the illustration of service lines. Queues are a part of our everyday social life; they are something within which we all participate as we carry out our everyday affairs. We recognize when someone is waiting in a line and, when we are "doing" being a member of a line, we have ways of showing it. In other words, lines may seem impromptu and routine, but they exhibit an internal, member-produced embodied structure.
A line is "witnessably a produced social object;"  it is, in Durkheimian terms, a "social fact.
Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis - Sociology - Oxford Bibliographies
To recognize someone as in a line, or to be seen as "in line" ourselves requires attention to bodily movement and bodily placement in relation to others and to the physical environment that those movements also constitute. This is another sense that we consider the action to be indexical—it is made meaningful in the ways in which it is tied to the situation and the practices of members who produce it.
The ethnomethodologist's task becomes one of analyzing how members' ongoing conduct is a constituent aspect of this or that course of action. Such analysis can be applied to any sort of social matter e. These topics are representative of the kinds of inquiry that ethnomethodology was intended to undertake. In particular, Garfinkel conducted a famous case study on Agnes, a transgender woman in According to George Ritzer , a sociologist, Breaching experiments are experiments where "social reality is violated in order to shed light on the methods by which people construct social reality.
The following is an example of one of Garfinkel's breaching experiments from his book, Studies in Ethnomethodology. Case 3: On Friday night my husband and I were watching television. My husband remarked that he was tired. I asked, 'How are you tired? Physically, mentally, or just bored? E: What do you mean?
Do you mean all old movies, or some of them, or just the ones you have seen? S: You know what I mean! Drop dead! Today, some textbooks in sociology often suggest that breaching experiments are the research method that ethnomethodologists use to explore the social organization of action. However, for Garfinkel breaching experiments mostly are a teaching tool that he  describes as "tutorial exercises in Ethnomethodology's Program. A substantial corpus of empirical work has developed exploring the issues raised by Garfinkel's writings.
Studies in Ethnomethodology
Directly inspired by Garfinkel, Harvey Sacks undertook to investigate the sequential organization of conversational interaction. A second, smaller literature has grown out of another of Sacks' interests having to do with social categorization practices. Sociologist Emanuel A. Schegloff used the concept of ethnomethodology to study telephone conversations and how these they influence social interaction. H Zimmerman all study ethnomethodology within institutions. Early on, Garfinkel issued a call for ethnomethodologically informed investigations into the nature of work. Garfinkel's program strongly resonates in a wide range of disciplines, including sociology, linguistics, gender studies, organisation studies and management as well as in the technical sciences.
The bulk of Garfinkel's original writings came in the form of scholarly articles and technical reports most of which were subsequently republished as book chapters. To appreciate the sequential development of Garfinkel's thought, however, it is important to understand when these pieces were actually written.
Although published in , Seeing Sociologically  was actually written as an annotated version of a draft dissertation proposal two years after arriving at Harvard. Toward a Sociological Theory of Information  was also written while Garfinkel was a student and was based on a report prepared in conjunction with the Organizational Behavior Project at Princeton. Some of Garfinkel's early papers on ethnomethodology were republished as Studies in Ethnomethodology.
Garfinkel subsequently published an edited anthology showcasing selected examples of ethnomethodologically informed work. Garfinkel had planned to publish a companion piece to Ethnomethodology's Program , which was tentatively entitled, "Workplace and Documentary Diversity of Ethnomethodological Studies of Work and Sciences by Ethnomethodology's Authors: What did we do?
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What did we learn? This project was never completed, but some preliminary notes were published in Human Studies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Harold Garfinkel. Newark , New Jersey , US. Los Angeles , California , US. Ethnomethodological indifference member methods unique adequacy requirement shop floor problem.
Sociological theory social theory. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. April By Garfinkel, Harold. Rawls, Anne Warfield ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, Ipswich, MA. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, Reflexive Properties of Practical Sociology. Philadelphia: Westview Press. Essays in Self-Destruction. New York: Science House, Introduction of Harold Garfinkel for the Cooley-Mead award.
Social Psychology Quarterly 59, no. New York: McGraw-Hill, McKinney and E. Tiryakian, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, , New York: Free Press, In Human Studies Vol. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press. Organizing Ordinary Life. In Contemporary social and sociological theory: Visualizing social worlds. Thousand Oaks, Calif. Studies in Ethnomethodology. Garfinkel and Ethnomethodology. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, , p. Sosyoloji Dergisi. Year , Volume , Issue 27, Pages - Zotero Mendeley EndNote.
Beverly Hills, Calif. Wheeling and Dealing. New York: Columbia Univ. Membership Roles in Field Research. Berkeley: Univ. The Micro-Macro Link. The media self. Order in Court. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press Austin, J. Philosophical Papers. London: Oxford Univ. A constructivist view of emotion.